The effect of water temperature on biochemical composition, growth and reproduction of the ornamental shrimp, Neocaridina heteropoda heteropoda, was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for its culture. The effect of embryo incubation temperature on the subsequent performance of juveniles was also evaluated.
females and recently hatched juveniles (JI) were maintained during egg incubation and for a 90-day period, respectively, at three temperatures (24, 28 and 32°C). Incubation period increased with decreasing water temperature, but the number and size of JI were similar among treatments. At day 30 of the 90-day period, body weight and growth increment (GI) at 24°C were lower than those at 28 and 32°C. On subsequent days, GI at 24°C exceeded that at 28 and 32°C, leading to a similar body weight among treatments. These results suggest growth was delayed at 24°C, but only for 30 days after hatching. The lipid concentration tended to be lowest, intermediate and highest at 28, 32 and 24°C, respectively, possibly as a consequence of the metabolic processes involved in growth and ovarian maturation. Protein and glycogen concentrations were similar among treatments. Both the growth trajectory and biochemical composition of shrimps were affected by the temperature experienced during the 90-day growth period independently of the embryo incubation temperature. During the growth period, shrimps reached sexual maturity and mated, with the highest proportion of ovigerous females occurring at 28°C. All the females that matured and mated at 32°C lost their eggs, indicating a potentially stressful effect of high temperature on ovarian maturation. Based on high survival and good growth performance of shrimps at the three temperatures tested over the 90-day period it is concluded that N. heteropoda heteropoda is tolerant to a wide range of water temperatures, with 28°C being the optimum temperature for its culture.
Citation: Tropea C, Stumpf L, López Greco LS (2015) Effect of Temperature on Biochemical Composition, Growth and Reproduction of the Ornamental Red Cherry Shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda heteropoda (Decapoda, Caridea). PLoS ONE 10(3): e0119468. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119468
Academic Editor: Erik V. Thuesen, The Evergreen State College, UNITED STATES
Received: August 29, 2014; Accepted: January 29, 2015; Published: March 13, 2015
Copyright: © 2015 Tropea et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.
Funding: Funding provided by (CT LS LLG) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2007, project 01187 and PICT 2012, project 1333), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP 2012–2014, number 112-201101-00212), Universidad de Buenos Aires Ciencia y Técnica (project 20020100100003) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Producitiva-Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior)BR/11/21. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Water temperature is one of the most important physical factors affecting survival and growth of decapod crustaceans . Growth rate has been shown to increase with increasing temperature to a maximum, before declining near the upper thermal limit of tolerance . By manipulating this parameter, it may be possible to reduce the time needed to culture economically important species. However, high temperatures also increase mortality, as demonstrated for penaeid shrimps, possibly because less protein is incorporated into body tissues [2,3].
Changes in temperature can affect the metabolic efficiency of an organism , which is presumably reflected in its elemental and biochemical composition . In fact, temperature is one of the abiotic factors to which some authors relate seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of decapod crustaceans, such as crayfishes [6–8], marine shrimps  and crabs . The effect of temperature on crustacean biochemical composition has also been studied under controlled laboratory conditions of feeding and water quality [11–14]. In particular, an increase in temperature was shown to augment total lipid content in adult males of the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  and decrease the mean protein content of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis larvae . To our knowledge no study has ever been performed to address the possible influence of water temperature on the biochemical composition of freshwater shrimps.
Water temperature also influences survival and development of embryos and larvae of decapods [15,16]. A decrease in the incubation period has been reported as a result of increasing temperature for many species [13,17–21], and for some of them this has been associated with lower survival, higher energy consumption, and even serious deformities of embryos [20,22]. Moreover, the temperature experienced during embryogenesis may influence larval biomass at hatching and subsequent larval development in decapods [23,24]. Therefore, special care must be taken when temperature is manipulated to accelerate embryonic development.
The genus Neocaridina comprises freshwater shrimp species native to China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Taiwan . Many of these species have been growing in popularity in the aquarium industry over the past years [26, 27]. In particular, N. heteropoda heteropoda is popular among freshwater aquarists due to its bright coloration which includes different shades of red (red cherry shrimp), yellow (yellow shrimp), and blue (Neocaridina blue). Despite its potential economic importance as an ornamental shrimp, little quantitative information is available regarding the reproductive and growth performance of this species, and the effects of temperature on these parameters remain unknown.
Based on the considerations mentioned above, the objectives of the present study were (1) to determine the optimum temperature for N. heteropoda heteropoda culture by evaluating the effect of this parameter on its reproduction and growth, and (2) to determine if the temperature experienced during embryonic development affects the subsequent growth performance of juveniles. This information will also expand the scarce literature addressing those topics on freshwater crustaceans.